WASHINGTON — Many of this country's biggest companies paid no federal taxes — or even made money through credits and refunds from the government — over the past three years by using an array of loopholes and tax breaks, according to a report released today.
The authors examined the finances of 280 corporations from 2008 through 2010 and found that 30 paid zero taxes or used loopholes to wind up with negative tax rates.
Under the federal tax code, corporations are supposed to pay 35 percent of their profits in taxes. But the study found many of the companies used legal tax breaks that allowed them to pay lower rates than ordinary Americans.
The report, compiled by the nonprofit groups Citizens for Tax Justice and the Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, was published as corporations and White House officials have pushed for a reform of the corporate tax code. Powerful business lobbying groups, including the Business Roundtable, have said they want lawmakers to lower the overall 35 percent tax rate in exchange for closing some loopholes. These lobbyists frequently cite this rate when arguing that U.S. firms pay more than their foreign competitors.
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Some corporations pushed back at the report, saying it relied on fuzzy accounting.
The "findings in this and other recent reports have been more politically motivated than truthful," said Robert Varettoni, a spokesman for Verizon, which was cited in the report for having a negative 3 percent rate from 2008 through 2010. "The fact is, Verizon fully complies with all tax laws and pays its fair share of taxes."
The report said that 71 of the companies paid an effective rate of more than 30 percent over the three years. But roughly an equal number paid less than 10 percent.
The range between industries is wide. Retail and health-care companies, in particular, tend to pay more in taxes. These firms usually have less intellectual property that can be shifted overseas to take advantage of other countries' lower tax rates. The report found they paid an effective rate of 30 percent over the three years.
By contrast, tech companies and manufacturers, including General Electric, paid far less. GE, for instance, paid a rate of minus 45 percent, the report said. GE did not respond to requests f or comment.
The paper also noted that defense contractors paid notably low rates, averaging about 15 percent.