Wages and benefits rose at the fastest pace in six years last year, a sign that strong job gains could be forcing companies to pay a bit more for workers.
The Labor Department said Friday that the employment cost index, which measures pay and benefits, rose 2.2 percent in 2014, up from 2 percent the previous year. That’s the biggest gain since 2008. It’s also ahead of inflation, which rose 1.3 percent.
Yet the increase is still sluggish by historical standards. In a healthy economy, the index usually rises at about a 3.5 percent pace.
The Federal Reserve is watching wages as it considers when to raise the short-term interest rate it controls. Fed Chair Janet Yellen considers rising wages a key sign that the job market is nearing full health. Higher pay can also push up inflation, which typically prompts the Fed to raise interest rates.
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Employers added nearly 3 million jobs in 2014, the best year for hiring in 15 years. That helped drive the unemployment rate down to 5.6 percent, the lowest in six years, from 6.7 percent a year earlier. Such trends usually push up paychecks, as companies are forced to offer higher salaries to attract a dwindling number of unemployed workers.
Other measures of wages don’t show any pickup. Average hourly pay, a gauge included in the monthly jobs report, rose just 1.7 percent in 2014, below the previous year’s pace.
Yet most economists think the employment cost index is a better measure of wages. It focuses on how pay levels change within occupations and industries. The average hourly wage figure is influenced by changes in which industries are hiring. As a result, big job gains in lower-paying sectors, such as restaurants and retail, can drag down average hourly pay.
The employment cost index began to creep up earlier this year, increasing 0.7 percent in the second and third quarters. Those were the largest increases since the recession. Wages and benefits rose 0.6 percent in the final three months of 2014.
Higher wages can be a precursor for higher inflation. As Americans earn more at their jobs, they spend more, enabling stores and other businesses to raise prices.
Consumers may not like higher prices, but the Fed would love to see them. Fed policymakers prefer inflation to be at about 2 percent a year. That provides them a cushion against deflation, a destabilizing fall in wages and prices.
Yet prices rose just 1.3 percent last year, according to the Fed’s preferred measure. They have been below the Fed’s target for three years. The Fed’s policy-making committee attributed much of the weakness to lower gas prices in a statement Wednesday. It also said it expects inflation will rise gradually to 2 percent in the “medium term” as the impact of the gas prices fades.