This promises to be a good year for Renee Palmer. Next month, the Detroit woman will celebrate 10 years of sobriety. Looking back, Palmer hardly recognizes the woman she was in her 30s: a woman who would empty a 20-ounce bottle of Pepsi, leaving just enough to season a half-pint of vodka.
A woman who hid liquor bottles around her house so people wouldn't know how much she was drinking. A woman who got so drunk that she barely remembers how her truck crashed into a car one February morning. A woman who lost custody of her then 8-year-old son, Ryan.
Palmer, now 43, didn't fight the judge's order. "I knew what I was doing was wrong, but I didn't know how to stop."
But her worst day marked the beginning of her best years. It put Palmer on the road to recovery from alcohol abuse, a problem that is trapping a growing number of women.
Reports indicate that the number of women battling alcohol addiction may be on the rise. Some are busy moms, like Palmer once was, struggling to meet family obligations. Some drink to fit in with friends or business associates. Some use alcohol to escape the complexities of life.
Some women just drink.
"There is a huge cause for concern," says clinical psychologist Sharon Wilsnack of the University of North Dakota, one of the nation's leading experts on women and alcohol.
"There has been a striking increase in the number of women who report getting drunk. And intoxication puts women at risk for many, many bad outcomes, including car crashes, victimization and many long-term health problems."
Rise in problem
According to the latest statistics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the number of women who reported abusing alcohol — having at least four drinks in a day — rose from 1.5 percent to 2.6 percent from 1992 to 2002. For women ages 30 to 44, the number more than doubled, from 1.5 percent to 3.3 percent.
Wilsnack's studies also show the prevalence of intoxication among women rising significantly, especially among women in their 20s. The percentage of women reporting being intoxicated jumped from 27.4 percent to 42.9 percent between 1981 and 2001. Among women in their 20s, the numbers shot from 47.6 percent to 62.7 percent.
Alcohol abuse poses greater threats to women than men, experts say.
"Women are more likely to experience alcohol-related organ damage — that is damage to the brain, heart and liver — and recent studies show drinking even at low levels is a risk factor for breast cancer," says Deidra Roach, a spokeswoman for the NIAAA.
"In addition to the health risks, the risks of interpersonal violence increases for women," Roach says. "They are at increased risk for victimization.
"If a woman is intoxicated and in a situation where there is a potential for sexual abuse, it places her at greater risks for violence, for exposure to STDs. It impairs judgment," she says. "The consequences of that are extremely serious."
Generally, women and men drink for different reasons, says Beth Glover Reed, a University of Michigan psychologist who has studied alcohol abuse among women. Reed contends that women are more likely to use drinking as a coping mechanism, whereas men are more likely to drink as a social outlet.
Tanis, a 46-year-old Livingston County, Mich., woman who prefers not to give her last name, started drinking when she was 36. She was a mother of three children — the youngest, now 19. She believes she was trying to fight depression stemming from the death of her mother, who committed suicide when she was 9.
When Tanis felt bad, she drank. Beer on weekends became beer and wine every day.
"The compulsion was so strong, I'd go to the store to buy it and I had to have a drink before I got home," she says.
She drove her kids while drunk. "I was driving but feeling like I had complete control," Tanis says. "I know now that's insanity."
Tanis sought treatment after her husband threatened to leave her. After one of many arguments, she checked herself into a treatment program at Brighton Hospital, a substance-abuse treatment facility run by the Henry Ford Health System. She's been sober since 2001 and attends Alcoholics Anonymous meetings at least twice a week.
One of the worst parts of her year-long addiction, she says, was thinking she was mentally ill.
"I knew I had a drinking problem, but I thought I was crazy," Tanis says. "Come to find out, take away the drink and your life comes back together."
After being sober for 20 years, Julia, a 58-year-old Ypsilanti Township, Mich., mother of three adult children, started drinking heavily again last summer.
Cutbacks at her job resulted in a layoff, then she had to learn a completely new job within a matter of weeks. She felt stressed adjusting to new people and new responsibilities. And in the midst of the adjustment, two of her closest friends were diagnosed with advanced stages of cancer. One of them died.
"I drank to numb myself out," says Julia, who asked that her last name not be used. She turned to the University of Michigan's Alcohol Management Program in September where she works with a therapist and attends support group meetings.
There is no one size fits all when it comes to effective treatment for women abusing alcohol, experts say. The programs that work best address a myriad of issues they may face, including help with child care, employment and the effects of physical, sexual and emotional abuse that often accompanies women who drink excessively.
Most importantly, successful programs boost women's self-esteem and help remove the shame women often feel more deeply because of lingering double standards — especially when that woman is also a mother.
"It's still much more socially accepted for men to be out drinking and acting out," Glover Reed says. "It's sort of a rite of passage, just something men do — they get drunk every once in a while. But there's still a lot of disgust about drunk women."
The support of other women gives Renee Palmer strength.
She has grown from a woman who wouldn't even talk in therapy to a group moderator for Women for Sobriety, a national self-help group started in 1976 for women who battle alcohol abuse and addiction.
"Women have different problems," says Palmer, who began moderating WFS groups in 2001. "I can sit here and talk and share about what's stressing me" and a participant in the program will "understand because she's been there."
A life unraveled by alcohol began to come back together. She remarried a few years ago to a man who encouraged her recovery.
Her advice to other women is to stop hiding and denying the problem. "If you're not honest, you're not able to deal with what's going on, and that leads to bad decisions. You have to be honest so you can deal with how you're feeling instead of pushing it away or burying it with drinking," Palmer says. "If you're honest, you'll get help and make better decisions."